Early detection of patients at risk of sternal complications is essential to facilitate prevention and optimize timely intervention. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to identify risk factors associated with sternal complications. The review included 17 full-text studies, of which 10 were entered into meta-analyses. Female gender, diabetes mellitus, obesity, bilateral internal mammary artery grafts, reoperation for postoperative complications, and blood product requirement were reported as significant predictors of sternal infection. The compilation of these risk factors may help to screen and stratify patients at risk of impaired sternal healing and warrants further investigation.