BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer remains the most common non-skin cancer malignancy in men. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is recognized as a biomarker for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk prediction of prostate cancer. Its use in the setting of prostate cancer screening has been controversial due to the risk of over diagnosis and over treatment. OBJECTIVE:Within Australia, there are inconsistent recommendations surrounding the use of PSA screening in clinical practice. In light of the 2016 PSA-screening guidelines by the major Australian health authorities, the current review aims to highlight the controversies and objectively outline the current recommendations within Australia. DISCUSSION:Health-care authorities across Australia have issued conflicting guidelines for prostate cancer screening culminating in confusion amongst health care practitioners and members of the public alike. A general consensus is held by other countries across the globe but differences amongst the specific details in how to best employ a PSA screening program still exist.