As the optimal administration time for fosfomycin peri-procedural prophylaxis is unclear, we sought to determine optimal administration times for fosfomycin peri-procedural prophylaxis.Plasma, peripheral zone and transition zone fosfomycin concentrations were obtained from 26 subjects undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), following a single oral dose of 3 g of fosfomycin. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was completed with the Nonparametric Adaptive Grid (NPAG) algorithm (Pmetrics package for R), with a four-compartment model. Plasma and tissue concentrations were simulated during the first 24 h post-dose, comparing these with EUCAST susceptibility breakpoints for Escherichia coli, a common uropathogen.Non-compartmental-determined pharmacokinetic values in our population were similar to those reported in the package insert. Predicted plasma concentrations rapidly increased after the first hour, giving more than 90% population coverage for organisms with an MIC ≤4 mg/L over the first 12 h post-dose. Organisms with higher MICs fared much worse, with organisms at the EUCAST breakpoint being covered for <10% of the population at any time. Transitional zone prostate concentrations exceeded 4 mg/L for 90% of the population between hours 1 and 9. Peripheral zone prostate concentrations were much lower and only exceeded 4 mg/L for 70% of the population between hours 1 and 4.Until more precise plasma and tissue data are available, we recommend that fosfomycin prophylaxis be given 1-4 h prior to prostate biopsy. We do not recommend fosfomycin prophylaxis for subjects with known organisms with MICs >4 mg/L.