Neuropsychologic impact of facial deformities in children: Neurodevelopmental role of the face in communication and bonding Academic Article uri icon


  • The face is the primary tool of human communication. In early childhood, the face plays a crucial role in bonding and attachment. Severe craniofacial problems may alter bonding and attachment, thereby resulting in future risk for emotional, behavioral, and social problems. Clinical and research findings, while incomplete, suggest that this is the case. This conceptual understanding of the key role of face-to-face communication in early childhood provides a compelling rationale for early repair of craniofacial deformations.


  • Perry, BD
  • Czyzewski, DI
  • Lopez, MA
  • Spiller, LC
  • Treadwell-Deering, D

publication date

  • November 11, 1998