1. Many studies have evaluated the effectiveness of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, with conflicting results reported on the protective effect of this anti-oxidant. 2. The present study examined the effectiveness of a novel tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPm) compared with that of alpha-tocopherol (TA) on key pro-inflammatory markers involved in atherogenesis, including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as vascular function and lesion development in rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol diet. 3. Treatment with TPm, incorporated into the rabbit food at four doses ranging from 60 to 360 mg/kg chow, resulted in a significant reduction in plasma levels of all pro-inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers that appeared to be somewhat dose dependent. Conversely, treatment with TA, at a dose equivalent to the highest dose of TPm used, only decreased plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-8. Both TPm and TA treatment significantly improved vascular function to a similar extent, although TPm was more effective in reducing lesion development. 4. The reduction in these key pro-inflammatory markers appears to follow the improvement in the atherogenic state of the animals, indicating that the anti-inflammatory properties of TPm may be potentially beneficial in inflammatory disease states.