Test–retest reliability and variability of knee adduction moment peak, impulse and loading rate during walking Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND:Previous studies have reported good test-retest reliability for peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking. However, reliability of other KAM measurements has not been established. RESEARCH QUESTION:What is the test-retest reliability of peak KAM, KAM impulse, and KAM loading rate measurements during walking in knee-healthy individuals? METHODS:Data from 32 knee-healthy participants were analysed in this test-retest reliability study. Various KAM measurements were reported for two sessions with kinematic and kinetic data obtained from a motion capture system synchronised with force plates, with a median of 1 week between sessions. RESULTS:For all KAM measures, intra-class correlation coefficients were above 0.90 and their lower bound 95 % confidence limits exceeded 0.81. However, absolute measurement variability differed across measures, with normalized SEM (8 %-15 %), normalized MDC95 (20 %-40 %), intra-session MAD (10 %-18 %), and inter-session MAD (12 %-22 %) varying over a 2-fold range. Overall and first peak KAM, KAM impulse over 50 % stance, and KAM loading rate (15 frame window) showed ≤10 % and ≤15 % intra- and inter-session MAD, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE:This study provided previously undefined test-retest reliability estimates for various KAM measures during walking. Researchers and clinicians should not assume that the various aspects of the KAM curve share similar reliability.


  • Tan, Hong Han
  • Mentiplay, Benjamin
  • Quek, JJE
  • Tham, ACW
  • Lim, LZX
  • Clark, RA
  • Woon, EL
  • Yeh, TT
  • Tan, Celia Ia Choo
  • Pua, YH

publication date

  • 2020