Transcription Factor IRF4 Promotes CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion and Limits the Development of Memory-like T Cells during Chronic Infection Academic Article uri icon


  • During chronic stimulation, CD8+ T cells acquire an exhausted phenotype characterized by expression of inhibitory receptors, down-modulation of effector function, and metabolic impairments. T cell exhaustion protects from excessive immunopathology but limits clearance of virus-infected or tumor cells. We transcriptionally profiled antigen-specific T cells from mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains that cause acute or chronic disease. T cell exhaustion during chronic infection was driven by high amounts of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced transcription factors IRF4, BATF, and NFATc1. These regulators promoted expression of inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, and mediated impaired cellular metabolism. Furthermore, they repressed the expression of TCF1, a transcription factor required for memory T cell differentiation. Reducing IRF4 expression restored the functional and metabolic properties of antigen-specific T cells and promoted memory-like T cell development. These findings indicate that IRF4 functions as a central node in a TCR-responsive transcriptional circuit that establishes and sustains T cell exhaustion during chronic infection.


  • Man, K
  • Gabriel, SS
  • Liao, Yang
  • Gloury, R
  • Preston, S
  • Henstridge, DC
  • Pellegrini, M
  • Zehn, D
  • Berberich-Siebelt, F
  • Febbraio, MA
  • Shi, Wei
  • Kallies, A

publication date

  • 2017

has subject area