OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a low-resource-intensive lifestyle modification program incorporating resistance training and to compare a gymnasium-based with a home-based resistance training program on diabetes diagnosis status and risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A quasi-experimental two-group study was undertaken with 122 participants with diabetes risk factors; 36.9% had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at baseline. The intervention included a 6-week group self-management education program, a gymnasium-based or home-based 12-week resistance training program, and a 34-week maintenance program. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, body composition, physical activity, and diet were assessed at baseline and week 52. RESULTS:Mean 2-h plasma glucose and FPG fell by 0.34 mmol/l (95% CI -0.60 to -0.08) and 0.15 mmol/l (-0.23 to -0.07), respectively. The proportion of participants with IFG or IGT decreased from 36.9 to 23.0% (P = 0.006). Mean weight loss was 4.07 kg (-4.99 to -3.15). The only significant difference between resistance training groups was a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure for the gymnasium-based group (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS:This intervention significantly improved diabetes diagnostic status and reduced diabetes risk to a degree comparable to that of other low-resource-intensive lifestyle modification programs and more intensive interventions applied to individuals with IGT. The effects of home-based and gymnasium-based resistance training did not differ significantly.