Limited sustained local transmission of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in New South Wales, Australia Academic Article uri icon


  • Australia’s response to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic led to effective control of HIV transmission and one of the world’s lowest HIV incidence rates—0.14%. Although there has been a recent decline in new HIV diagnoses in New South Wales (NSW), the most populous state in Australia, there has been a concomitant increase with non-B subtype infections, particularly for the HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE. This aforementioned CRF01_AE sampled in NSW, were combined with those sampled globally to identify NSW-specific viral clades. The population growth of these clades was assessed in two-year period intervals from 2009 to 2017. Overall, 109 NSW-specific clades were identified, most comprising pairs of sequences; however, five large clades comprising ≥10 sequences were also found. Forty-four clades grew over time with one or two sequences added to each in different two-year periods. Importantly, while 10 of these clades have seemingly discontinued, the remaining 34 were still active in 2016/2017. Seven such clades each comprised ≥10 sequences, and are representative of individual sub-epidemics in NSW. Thus, although the majority of new CRF01_AE infections were associated with small clades that rarely establish ongoing chains of local transmission, individual sub-epidemics are present and should be closely monitored.


  • Di Giallonardo, Francesca
  • Pinto, Angie N
  • Keen, Phillip
  • Shaik, Ansari
  • Carrera, Alex
  • Salem, Hanan
  • Telfer, Barbara
  • Cooper, Craig
  • Price, Karen
  • Selvey, Christine
  • Holden, Joanne
  • Bachmann, Nadine
  • Lee, Frederick J
  • Dwyer, Dominic E
  • Duchene, Sebastian
  • Holmes, Edward C
  • Grulich, Andrew E
  • Kelleher, Anthony D
  • Guy, Rebecca
  • Prestage, Garrett
  • Zablotska, Iryna
  • Duck, Tim
  • Holt, Martin
  • de Wit, John
  • Kaldor, John
  • Kelleher, Anthony
  • Wilson, David
  • Whittaker, Bill
  • Patel, Prital
  • Nigro, Steven
  • Power, Cherie
  • Rose, Nick

publication date

  • 2019