Children and adolescents with Down syndrome have a distinctive foot shape (such as wide and flat feet) that often leads to difficulty with footwear fitting. 3-dimensional (3D) scanning can accurately measure the foot dimensions of individuals with Down syndrome, which may assist shoe fit. However, the reproducibility of measuring foot dimensions using 3D scans in children and adolescents with Down syndrome is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of measuring foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome using 3D scanning.
3D foot scans of 30 participants with Down syndrome aged 5 to 17 years were obtained using the FotoScan 3D scanner. Foot dimensions assessed were foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, diagonal foot width, horizontal foot width, heel width, ball girth, instep girth, first and fifth toe height, and instep height. Additionally, the Wesjflog Index and forefoot shape were determined. Measurements were completed by two raters independently on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Gwet's AC1 statistics with 95% confidence intervals. Agreement was determined by calculating limits of agreement (LOA) and percentage agreement.
Eighteen participants were female and 12 were male (mean age 10.6 [3.9] years). Intra-rater reproducibility (ICCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, 95% LOA from - 13.7 mm to 16.3 mm) and inter-rater reproducibility (ICCs ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, 95% LOA from - 18.8 mm to 12.7 mm) was good to excellent, although some measurements (ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, heel width and girth measurements) displayed wider LOAs indicating relatively poorer agreement. Forefoot shape displayed substantial to almost perfect reliability (Gwet's AC1 0.68 to 0.85) and percentage agreement ranged from 73 to 87%, indicating acceptable agreement.
The measurement of specific foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome using 3D scans is reproducible. Findings of this study may be used to support future research measuring specific foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome using 3D foot scans.