DIE NEUTRALIS and LATE BLOOMER 1 Contribute to Regulation of the Pea Circadian Clock Academic Article uri icon


  • The DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE) locus in garden pea (Pisum sativum) was previously shown to inhibit flowering under noninductive short-day conditions and to affect a graft-transmissible flowering signal. In this study, we establish that DNE has a role in diurnal and/or circadian regulation of several clock genes, including the pea GIGANTEA (GI) ortholog LATE BLOOMER 1 (LATE1) and orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL and TIMING OF CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN EXPRESSION 1. We also confirm that LATE1 participates in the clock and provide evidence that DNE is the ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4). Circadian rhythms of clock gene expression in wild-type plants under constant light were weaker in pea than in Arabidopsis, and a number of differences were also seen in the effects of both DNE/ELF4 and LATE1/GI on clock gene expression. Grafting studies suggest that DNE controls flowering at least in part through a LATE1-dependent mobile stimulus, and dne mutants show elevated expression of a FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog under short-day conditions. However, the early flowering of the dne mutant is not associated with altered expression of a previously described CONSTANS-like gene. Collectively, our results characterize the clock system and reveal its importance for photoperiod responsiveness in a model legume.


  • Liew, Lim Chee
  • Hecht, Valérie
  • Laurie, Rebecca E
  • Knowles, Claire L
  • Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K
  • Macknight, Richard C
  • Weller, James L

publication date

  • October 2009