A new inquiry into the archaeology of north-eastern Anatolia was initiated in the summer of 1990 at Büyüktepe Höyük, alternatively called İkiztepe. Located about 1·8 km. north of the village of Çiftetaş, in the mountain-girdled Bayburt plain, some 1500 m. above the level of the Black Sea, the site comprises layers of human occupation stretched across two distinct natural hills joined by a saddle (Figs 1–3). Orientated along a northwest–southeast axis, Büyüktepe rises impressively some 20 m. above the floor of the Beşpınar valley. In a direct line from Bayburt, Büyüktepe is only 30 km. to the southwest, although, if one follows the Bayburt to Demirözü road, the distance is increased to about 35 km. From the village of Çiftetaş, a track leads to Büyüktepe and bifurcates roughly 350 m. from its southern end. One branch skirts its eastern base on its way to Çayıryolu; the other runs toward the spurs of Baltakaya Tepesi which were also settled in antiquity.