The Elusive Role of the Potential Factor X Cation-binding Exosite-1 in Substrate and Inhibitor Interactions Academic Article uri icon


  • A number of studies suggest that blood-clotting factor X (FX) uses secondary site(s) to interact (as a substrate) with its activators. Numerous pieces of evidence also imply that, within prothrombinase (as an enzyme), activated FX (FXa) uses exosite(s) for cofactor Va and/or prothrombin recognition. Similarly, FXa exosite(s) seem to govern interaction with inhibitors. An obvious difference between FXa and thrombin resides within a region called exosite-1: positively charged in thrombin and clearly of opposite polarity in FXa. To investigate the role of this potential cation-binding exosite, we prepared a series of mutants within loops 34-40 and 70-80 of FX. Overall, the mutations induced relatively subtle, non-synergistic modulation. The potential exosite was dispensable for FX activation and is unlikely to constitute a critical region for factor Va binding, albeit it is clearly important for prothrombin activation. Our data also implicate loop 34-40 of FXa in the interaction with the tissue factor pathway inhibitor, in prevention of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 binding, and in tempering inhibition by heparin-activated antithrombin. Compared with FX, mutants with reduced electrostatic potential potentiated thrombin production in FX-depleted plasma, whereas mutants with inverted electrostatic potential impeded clotting. Despite the definite consequences observed, disruption of the potential cation-binding exosite of FX had rather weak effects, far from what would be expected if this region was as crucial as in thrombin.

publication date

  • January 30, 2004

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