The in vitro and in vivo degradation properties of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds produced by two different technologies-thermally induced phase separation (TIPS), and solvent casting and particulate leaching (SCPL) were compared. Over 6 weeks, in vitro degradation produced changes in SCPL scaffold dimension, mass, internal architecture and mechanical properties. TIPS scaffolds produced far less changes in these parameters providing significant advantages over SCPL. In vivo results were based on a microsurgically created arteriovenous (AV) loop sandwiched between two TIPS scaffolds placed in a polycarbonate chamber under rat groin skin. Histologically, a predominant foreign body giant cell response and reduced vascularity was evident in tissue ingrowth between 2 and 8 weeks in TIPS scaffolds. Tissue death occurred at 8 weeks in the smallest pores. Morphometric comparison of TIPS and SCPL scaffolds indicated slightly better tissue ingrowth but greater loss of scaffold structure in SCPL scaffolds. Although advantageous in vitro, large surface area:volume ratios and varying pore sizes in PLGA TIPS scaffolds mean that effective in vivo (AV loop) utilization will only be achieved if the foreign body response can be significantly reduced so as to allow successful vascularisation, and hence sustained tissue growth, in pores less than 300 microm.