An in vivo murine vascularized chamber model has been shown to generate spontaneous angiogenesis and new tissue formation. This experiment aimed to assess the effects of common biological scaffolds on tissue growth in this model. Either laminin-1, type I collagen, fibrin glue, hyaluronan, or sea sponge was inserted into silicone chambers containing the epigastric artery and vein, one end was sealed with adipose tissue and the other with bone wax, then incubated subcutaneously. After 2, 4, or 6 weeks, tissue from chambers containing collagen I, fibrin glue, hyaluronan, or no added scaffold (control) had small amounts of vascularized connective tissue. Chambers containing sea sponge had moderate connective tissue growth together with a mild "foreign body" inflammatory response. Chambers containing laminin-1, at a concentration 10-fold lower than its concentration in Matrigel, resulted in a moderate adipogenic response. In summary, (1) biological hydrogels are resorbed and gradually replaced by vascularized connective tissue; (2) sponge-like matrices with large pores support connective tissue growth within the pores and become encapsulated with granulation tissue; (3) laminin-containing scaffolds facilitate adipogenesis. It is concluded that the nature and chemical composition of the scaffold exerts a significant influence on the amount and type of tissue generated in this in vivo chamber model.