BACKGROUND: The prevalences and correlates of non-viral injecting-related injuries and diseases (IRIDs) in Australian injecting drug users (IDUs) remain unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of IDUs was conducted in six sites across Australia's eastern states to investigate IRID experience among Australian IDU. Correlates of IRIDs were explored using logistic and negative binomial regression analyses. RESULTS: 393 IDUs were recruited. Lifetime experience of non-serious IRIDs was common (e.g., 'dirty hit' 68%); potentially serious and serious IRIDs were less commonly experienced (e.g., abscess 16%; gangrene <1%). Factors independently associated with potentially serious or serious IRIDs in the previous 12 months were: injecting in sites other than arms (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.7-5.4), injecting non-powder drug forms (5.0, 2.2-11.2), unstable accommodation (2.0, 1.1-3.5), being aged 25 years or older (4.3, 1.7-10.6) and not always washing hands before injection (9.3, 2.1-41.8). Factors independently associated with multiple IRIDs in the preceding 12 months were using three or more injecting sites (Adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), injecting in sites other than arms (1.7, 1.3-2.2), using non-powder drug forms (1.9, 1.4-2.5), injecting daily or more often (1.7, 1.3-2.2), current pharmacotherapy experience (1.5, 1.1-1.9), and not always washing hands before injecting (1.9, 1.2-2.9). DISCUSSION: Some IRIDs are widespread among Australian IDUs. Observed associations, particularly the protective effect of handwashing, have useful public health implications.