Mycobacteria were isolated from 14 (4.5%) of 314 samples, containing 7791 adult Diptera, which were collected in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1997-2000. These flies were collected from three cattle herds with paratuberculosis, two pig herds with mycobacterial infections and one farm that kept both cattle and pigs and that did not have problems of mycobacterial infections. Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated from Eristalis tenax Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae) captured from a pig herd. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (serotype 8) was isolated from flies of the genera Drosophila Fallen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Musca Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from a pig herd. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from Musca spp. and Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from dung flies of the genus Scatophaga Meigen (Diptera: Scatophagidae), Musca spp. and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) captured in the same herd. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was isolated from S. calcitrans from the farm with both cattle and pigs. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from Scatophaga spp. collected from pastures grazed by one of the cattle herds and from Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Lucilia caesar Linnaeus (Diptera: Calliphoridae) captured in a slaughterhouse, where cattle infected with paratuberculosis were slaughtered. Mycobacterium phlei was isolated from flies of the genus Lucilia captured at a waste bin. These data indicate that mycobacteria may be spread by adult flies that have been in contact with material contaminated with these pathogens.