This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Heilongjiang adult populations by using the EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire and to identify factors associated with HRQOL. Data from the National Health Services Survey (NHSS) 2008 in Heilongjiang province were obtained. Results of EQ-5D-3L questionnaires completed by 11,523 adult respondents (18 years or older) were converted to health index scores using a recently developed Chinese value set. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression models were established to determine demographic, socioeconomic, health, and lifestyle factors that were associated with HRQOL and reported problems in the five dimensions of EQ-5D-3L. The Heilongjiang population had a mean EQ-5D-3L index score of 0.959. Lower EQ-5D-3L index scores were associated with older age, lower levels of education, chronic conditions, temporary accommodation, poverty, unemployment, and lack of regular physical activities. Older respondents and those who were unemployed, had chronic conditions, and lived in poverty were more likely to report problems in all of the five health dimensions. Higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of reporting health problems in mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor HRQOL. Regional population norms for EQ-5D-3L are needed for health economic studies due to great socioeconomic disparities across regions in China. Overall, the Heilongjiang population has a similar level of HRQOL compared with the national average.