The recent development of X-ray free-electron laser sources has created new opportunities for the structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The extremely small sizes of the crystals, as well as imperfections of the crystal structure, result in an interference phenomenon in the diffraction pattern. With decreasing crystallite size the structural imperfections play a role in the formation of the diffraction pattern that is comparable in importance to the size effects and should be taken into account during the data analysis and structure reconstruction processes. There now exists a need to develop new methods of protein structure determination that do not depend on the availability of good-quality crystals and that can treat proteins under conditions close to the active form. This paper demonstrates an approach that is specifically tailored to nanocrystalline samples and offers a unique crystallographic solution.