The tuning of electron affinity and secondary electron emission on diamond (100) surfaces due to cycloaddition with 1,3-butadiene is investigated by photoemission experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A significant reduction in electron affinity up to 0.7 eV and enhancement of secondary electron emission were observed after 1,3-butadiene adsorption. The lowering of vacuum level via 1,3-butadiene adsorption is supported by DFT calculations. The C-H bonds in the covalently bonded organics on diamond contribute to the enhanced secondary electron emission and reduced electron affinity in a mechanism similar to that of C-H bonds on hydrogenated diamond surfaces. This combination of strong secondary emission and low electron affinity by the organic functionalization of diamond has potential applications in diamond-based molecular electronic devices.