Plantar vein thrombosis is an uncommon and under-diagnosed cause of plantar foot pain. It is characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within one of the plantar veins. Factors leading to this condition are unclear and multiple potential causes have been proposed. Plantar vein thrombosis presents as non-specific unilateral plantar foot pain, swelling, and a heavy feeling in the affected foot. There is no current diagnostic guideline for this condition however compression ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging appear suitable. Treatments range from rest and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to six months of anticoagulant therapy. Herein, we aim to consolidate the current literature on plantar vein thrombosis to guide clinicians and future researchers.