This Israeli national study examined a research model predicting parental behavioral involvement with their adult children several years after their placement in institutional care. The sample studied consisted of 278 parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Israel between January 1993 and December 2001. Predictors of behavioral involvement were analyzed by a path analysis, followed by several differential regression analyses. Parental behavioral involvement with their adult children after placement is differential, and explained primarily by the children's gender and age at placement. Parental behavioral involvement with their daughters is predicted by cognitive and emotional involvement, whereas their behavioral involvement with their sons is related to background data. The child's age at the time of placement also plays a role in predicting parental involvement. Parental behavioral involvement with their children is related to gender and age at the time of placement in institutional care. Longitudinal research should be carried out to track the involvement process.