Injection of surface modified zero valent iron nanoparticles for in situ remediation of soil, contaminated with an array of pollutants has attracted great attention due to the high reactivity of zero valent iron towards a broad range of contaminants, its cost effectiveness, minimal physical disruption and low toxicity. The effectiveness of this technology relies on the stability and mobility of injected iron nanoparticles. Hence the development of a modelling tool capable of predicting nZVI transport is indispensable. This review provides state of the art knowledge on the mobility of iron nanoparticles in porous media, mechanisms involved in subsurface retention of nZVI based on continuum models and field scale application. Special attention is given to the identification of the influential parameters controlling the transport potential of iron nanoparticles and the available numerical models for the simulation of laboratory scale transport data.