This study tested the effect of person–organization fit (P-O fit) in mediating the link between job satisfaction and hospital performance with income as a moderator. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 301 physicians from two public hospitals in Zhejiang province of China. Respondents were asked to rate their job satisfaction, value congruence (P-O fit) with the hospital, and the hospital’s performance. The mediating effect of P-O fit on the link between job satisfaction and hospital performance was tested through partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Income was introduced to the model as a moderator on the “P-O fit → hospital performance” and “job satisfaction → hospital performance” path, respectively. Higher job satisfaction and P-O fit were associated with higher ratings on hospital performance (p < 0.01). P-O fit had a partial mediating effect on the association between job satisfaction and hospital performance, accounting for 73% of the total effect. The effects of P-O fit and job satisfaction on hospital performance were stronger in the respondents with higher income. Overall, high job satisfaction is associated with high ratings on hospital performance, which is partially mediated through P-O fit. Value congruence is particularly important when financial tools are used to incentivize hospital physicians.