Many simple MSD risk management tools have been developed by ergonomists for use by workers and employers with little or no training to undertake injury prevention programs in their workplace. However, currently there is no "toolkit" which places such tools within an holistic, participative ergonomics framework and provides guidance on how best to use individual tools. It is proposed that such an holistic approach should entail initial analysis and evaluation of underlying systems of work and related health and performance indicators, prior to focusing in assessment of MSD risks stemming from particular hazards. Depending on the context, more narrowly focused tools might then be selected to assess risk associated with jobs or tasks identified as problematic. This approach ensures that biomechanical risk factors are considered within a broad context of organizational and psychosocial risk factors. This is consistent with current research evidence on work- related causes of MSDs.