The Malaysian government has committed to 'Fast Tracking the HIV Response' to achieve UNAIDS 2030 targets to end AIDS. The epidemic is concentrated among key populations and has shifted from people who inject drugs to HIV infection through sexual transmission among men who have sex with men, sex workers and transgender people. The aim of this scoping review was to examine social and behavioural research published since 2005 that can inform understanding of each stage of the 90:90:90 treatment cascade (as proposed by UNAIDS), including HIV risk behaviours and testing practices that precede entry. We found a concentration of studies related to predictors or correlates of HIV infections (mostly among men who have sex with men) and a shortfall in literature pertaining to sex workers or transgender people. While several studies examined factors associated with HIV testing, only one examined uptake of antiretroviral therapy and two explored issues of treatment adherence. No study examined broader care and support of people living with HIV. To scale-up effective programmes and apprise investment to achieve the ambitious targets set-out in the Malaysian National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan, a combination of comprehensive strategic information and evidence generated through primary research is critical.