Indonesia, like many developing countries, is experiencing a rapid urbanisation characterised by double burden of disease in which non communicable diseases become more prevalent while infectious diseases remain undefeated. This report describes the nutrition transition which occurred to Indonesia after economic transformation in 1966, based on information gathered from published reports. The major sources of information used in this paper were: a) a series of Indonesian National Socio-Economic Surveys (SUSENAS) conducted regularly by Central Bureau of Statistics (which provided a coherent picture of the nutrition transition in Indonesia) and b) data collected from two relatively smaller surveys conducted in West Sumatra (which demonstrated the changes in food and nutrient intakes over the period 1983-1999). It was found that while Indonesia had a rapid economic growth since 1970s, major dietary changes included an increase in expenditure for meat, eggs, milk and prepared food, and a fall in expenditure in cereal products. Nutrient proportions had changed from carbohydrate to fat and protein but the proportions remained close to the ideal ratio. There was also a dramatic shift in causes of death from infectious to chronic diseases. It is concluded that the nutrition transition in Indonesia is similar to patterns in other developing countries. Although fat consumption increased slightly, there is movement to maintain the traditional diet.