To evaluate the quality of bonded resin-dentine interfaces produced by two self-etching primer adhesives after casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) treatment, in comparison to untreated dentine.Thirty-four adult molar teeth were sectioned to obtain dentine with tubule orientations parallel/oblique or perpendicular to the surface. The specimens were divided into 'smear layer' (1A, 1B) and 'no smear layer' groups, after treatment with 15% EDTA (2A, 2B). The specimens were then left either untreated (1A, 2A) or treated (1B, 2B) with CPP-ACP paste (Tooth Mousse, GC Corp.) for 60 min x 7 days. Each treatment group was divided into three subgroups and specimens etched/conditioned (no conditioning; 30-40% phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)); 20% polyacrylic acid) and bonded with either a 2-step self-etching primer adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray Medical) or an 'all-in-one' adhesive (G-Bond, GC Corp.) and a hybrid resin composite. After 24-h water storage, the bonded specimens were sectioned, polished up to 4000-grit abrasive silicon carbide paper and 0.25-microm diamond paste, prepared for FE-SEM using the acid-base technique, critical point-dried, gold-coated and examined. Bonded and fractured dentine interfaces were also prepared and examined.The 2-step adhesive produced a similar appearance of bonded resin-dentine interface irrespective of smear layer group, treatment or etching/conditioning. After polyacrylic acid conditioning, the 'all-in-one' adhesive exhibited more areas with bond failures. The bond failures were within the hybrid layer and more pronounced following CPP-ACP treatment.The quality of the bonded resin-dentine interface produced after CPP-ACP treatment may depend on the adhesive system used.