To evaluate (a) the enamel microshear bond strength (MSBS) of a universal adhesive and (b) the effects of conditioning with a self-etching primer adhesive with/without prior bleaching and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) application.Thirty-five molars were cut into four sections, assigned randomly to four groups (no treatment; 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching; CPP-ACP-containing paste (Tooth Mousse, TM); bleaching and TM) and treated accordingly. Specimens were divided into two for bonding with either a self-etching primer (Clearfil SE Bond, CSE) or a total-etch adhesive (Single Bond, SB). Specimens for CSE bonding were subdivided for one of four preconditioning treatments (no conditioning; 30-40% phosphoric acid (PA); 15% EDTA; 20% polyacrylic acid conditioner (Cavity conditioner, CC) and treated. The adhesives were applied and resin composite bonded to the enamel using microtubes (internal diameter 0.75mm). Bonds were stressed in shear until failure, mean MSBS calculated and data analysed using ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test (alpha=0.05). The modes of bond failure were assessed and classified.Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between treatments (P<0.0001), conditioners (P<0.0001) and a significant interaction between treatments and conditioners (P=0.001). One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences in MSBS following any of the treatments for SB; following TM application for CSE without preconditioning; and significant differences in MSBS following bleaching with and without TM application for CSE. With preconditioning, applying PA before CSE post-bleaching and either PA or CC before CSE post-TM application, resulted in significant differences in MSBS (P<0.05).The use of conditioners prior to bonding with the self-etching primer adhesive system on treated enamel may significantly improve bond strengths.