The aims of this study were to investigate (1) platelet phospholipid (PL) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition in subjects who were the Melbourne Chinese migrants, compared with those who were the Melbourne Caucasians and (2) the relationship between platelet PL PUFA and intake of fish, meat and PUFA.Cross-sectional comparison of the Melbourne Chinese and Caucasians.Free-living male subjects.Ninety-seven Melbourne Chinese migrants and 78 Melbourne Caucasians who were recruited in Melbourne.Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The platelet PUFA was measured by gas-liquid chromatography.The Melbourne Chinese had significantly higher proportions of platelet PL 20:5n-3 (P=0.006), 22:6n-3 (P<0.0001), total n-3 (P=0.027) and 22:5n-6 (P=0.0002), and a significantly higher intake of fish (P=0.012) and white meat (P=0.0045) compared with the Melbourne Caucasians. In addition, the Melbourne Chinese had significantly lower proportions of 20:3n-6 (P=0.023), 20:4n-6 (P<0.002), 22:4n-6 (P<0.0001), total n-6 (P=0.037), 22:5n-3 (P<0.0001) and ratio of n-6/n-3 (P=0.011), and a significantly lower intake of red and total meat (P<0.0001) than the Melbourne Caucasians. Fish consumption was significantly positively correlated with platelet PL 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and significantly negatively correlated with 22:5n-3 (P<0.05). Meat consumption was significantly positively correlated with 22:5n-3 and significantly negatively correlated with 22:5n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 (P<0.05). Dietary PUFA intake was significantly positively correlated with 20:3n-6, 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-3, and significantly negatively correlated with 22:5n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 (P<0.05).Compared with Caucasians, the Melbourne Chinese had a significantly higher level of platelet PL n-3 PUFA, which might contribute to the low CVD mortality in this population. Platelet PL 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significantly positively correlated with fish intake, and negatively significantly correlated with dietary intake of meat and PUFA, while 22:5n-3 was significantly positively correlated with dietary meat and PUFA intake, and significantly negatively correlated with fish intake. Dietary intake of PUFA and fish are potential confounding factors for assessing the effects of meat consumption on platelet PL individual PUFA. Dietary intake of PUFA and meat did not influence the incorporation of fish long chain n-3 PUFA to platelet PL in this study population.Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Meat Research Corporation Australia.