OBJECTIVE:To compare iliococcygeus (prespinous) and sacrospinous fixation for vaginal vault prolapse. METHODS:Between 1994 and 1998, 78 women underwent sacrospinous colpopexy and 50 underwent iliococcygeus fixation for the management of symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse. A matched case-control study was designed to compare the two approaches. The matched variables included age, parity, body mass index, degree of vault prolapse, menopause, sexual activity, constipation, previous prolapse or continence surgery, stress incontinence, and length of review. Thirty-six matched pairs were isolated, resulting in a study with a power of 50% to detect a 20% difference in the success rates between the two groups. RESULTS:The subjective success rate for the iliococcygeus group was 91%; it was 94% for the sacrospinous group (P =.73). The objective success rate was 53% and 67% (P =.36), and the patient satisfaction with surgery was 78 of 100 and 91 of 100 (P =.01) on a visual analogue scale. The mean length of postoperative follow-up was 21 months for the iliococcygeus group and 19 months for the sacrospinous group (P =.52). The recovery time was 54 days in the iliococcygeus group and 39 days in the sacrospinous group (P =.04). No significant difference was seen in the incidence of postoperative cystoceles or damage to the pudendal neurovascular bundle. CONCLUSION:Sacrospinous and iliococcygeus fixation are equally effective procedures for vaginal vault prolapse and have similar rates of postoperative cystocele, buttock pain, and hemorrhage requiring transfusion. The sacrospinous ligament fixation should not be discarded in favor of the iliococcygeus fixation in the management of vaginal vault prolapse.