Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase inhibitor factor 1 Academic Article uri icon


  • Mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase (F1F0-ATPase) inhibitor factor 1 (IF1) has been extensively characterized as an endogenous inhibitor that prevents the hydrolysis of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) by mitochondrial ATPases in mammals and yeasts; however, IF1's functions in plants remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify plant mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase IF1 orthologs. Plant IF1s contain a conserved F1F0-ATPase inhibitory domain, but lack the antiparallel α-helical coiled-coil structure compared with mammalian IF1s. A subcellular localization analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that AtIF1-green fluorescent protein was present only in mitochondria. Additionally, AtIF1 was widely expressed in diverse organs and intense β-glucuronidase staining was observed in reproductive tissues and germinating seeds. Compared with the wild-type and p35S:AtIF1-if1 etiolated seedlings, the ATP/ADP ratio was significantly lower in the AtIF1 T-DNA knockout seedlings (if1 mutant) growing under dark conditions, suggesting that AtIF1 can influence the energy state of cells. A significant reduction in seed yield and strong growth retardation under dark conditions were observed in the if1 mutant line. Furthermore, if1 plants exhibited a substantially decreased sensitivity to abscisic acid. Thus, the A. thaliana mitochondrial IF1, which is a conserved F1F0-ATPase inhibitor, is crucial for plant growth and responses to abscisic acid.


publication date

  • November 1, 2020