Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with CVD risk. Subclinical arterial damage (SAD) precedes the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and allows early identification and study of the pathophysiology of CVD. Reliable, noninvasive vascular biomarkers are available for the early detection of SAD and reclassification of CVD risk. To investigate the association of alcohol consumption with multiple SAD biomarkers and central hemodynamics in a large sample of Greek adults with CVD risk factors.
Methods and results
This cross-sectional study was conducted with 938 participants (43.5% men) and collected data on SAD biomarkers, central hemodynamics, and dietary intake. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed according to sex after adjusting for several confounders. In men, alcohol consumption of 20-30 g/d was positively associated with mean, diastolic, and peripheral systolic blood pressure (BP). The consumption of >30 g/d was positively associated with the augmentation index. In women, no statistically significant associations were found between alcohol consumption and BP or SAD indices. No statistically significant associations were found between alcohol consumption and arterial compliance or distensibility in both sexes.
In men even a small deviation from the current recommendation for alcohol consumption is associated with both higher BP indices and pressure wave reflections. The absence of association in women might be due to very low alcohol intake, even in the high consumption group. More studies are needed to verify our findings and establish the above associations in each sex.