Background: The transformation of the global energy sector from fossil-based fuels to low/non-carbon fuels will reduce environmental pollutant load, which in turn will benefit human health. However, with upscaling of emerging renewable technologies and energy sources, it is important to identify the potential for unintended health impacts, and to understand where the knowledge gaps lie with respect to health. We aimed to identify these gaps by conducting a scoping review. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. We used broad search terms to capture literature associated with energy transitioning to low/non-carbon energy sources or related technologies, combined with terms relevant to measuring or estimating health outcomes/impacts associated with environmental exposures. We included original epidemiological studies, reviews, health impact assessments (HIAs), life cycle assessments (LCAs), and modelling studies that examined health impacts.