The use of electric pulses to deliver therapeutic molecules to tissues and organs in vivo is a rapidly growing field of research. Electrotransfer can be used to deliver a wide range of potentially therapeutic agents, including drugs, proteins, oligonucleotides, RNA and DNA. Optimization of this approach depends upon a number of parameters such as target organ accessibility, cell turnover, microelectrode design, electric pulsing protocols and the physiological response to the therapeutic agent. Many organs have been successfully transfected by electroporation, including skin, liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, male and female germ cells, artery, gut, kidney, retinal ganglion cells, cornea, spinal cord, joint synovium and brain. Electrotransfer technology is relevant in a variety of research and clinical settings including cancer therapy, modulation of pathogenic immune reactions, delivery of therapeutic proteins and drugs, and the identification of drug targets by the modulation of normal gene expression. This, together with the capacity to deliver very large DNA constructs, greatly expands the research and clinical applications of in vivo DNA electrotransfer.