This study examined depression, anxiety, and anger-hostility symptom levels, as well as overall quality of life, in a cohort of 50 lung and heart-lung transplant recipients. Only the subjects' mean anxiety symptoms were substantially elevated over normative levels. However, nearly half of the sample showed clinically significant distress in one or more of the three symptom areas. Pretransplant psychiatric history, educational level, posttransplant caregiver support, and health concerns were the most important independent correlates of the recipients' psychological outcome. Low sense of mastery and poorer physical functional status also showed some evidence of association with mental health.