Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with transplantation (PTSD-T) is a complication for some heart transplant recipients. By using a structured, standardized interview and DSM-III-R criteria, the authors examined whether recipients (n = 158) and their family caregivers (n = 142) showed similar PTSD-T rates and clinical characteristics during the first year posttransplant. Among the recipients, 10.5% met full criteria for the disorder and an additional 5% were probable cases. Among the caregivers, 7.7% met full criteria and an additional 11.0% were probable cases. Severity and duration of disorder were similar across the groups. Being female, having a history of psychiatric illness, and having lower friend support were increased risks for PTSD-T.