Electrochemiluminescent Monomers for Solid Support Syntheses of Ru(II)-PNA Bioconjugates: Multimodal Biosensing Tools with Enhanced Duplex Stability Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • The feasibility of devising a solid support mediated approach to multimodal Ru(II)-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers is explored. Three Ru(II)-PNA-like monomers, [Ru(bpy)(2)(Cpp-L-PNA-OH)](2+) (M1), [Ru(phen)(2)(Cpp-L-PNA-OH)](2+) (M2), and [Ru(dppz)(2)(Cpp-L-PNA-OH)](2+) (M3) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, Cpp-L-PNA-OH = [2-(N-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)aminoethyl]-N-[6-(2-(pyridin-2yl)pyrimidine-4-carboxamido)hexanoyl]-glycine), have been synthesized as building blocks for Ru(II)-PNA oligomers and characterized by IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, electrochemistry and elemental analysis. As a proof of principle, M1 was incorporated on the solid phase within the PNA sequences H-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-Lys-NH(2) (PNA1) and H-P-K-K-K-R-K-V-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-lys-NH(2) (PNA4) to give PNA2 (H-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-M1-lys-NH(2)) and PNA3 (H-P-K-K-K-R-K-V-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-M1-lys-NH(2)), respectively. The two Ru(II)-PNA oligomers, PNA2 and PNA3, displayed a metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition band centered around 445 nm and an emission maximum at about 680 nm following 450 nm excitation in aqueous solutions (10 mM PBS, pH 7.4). The absorption and emission response of the duplexes formed with the cDNA strand (DNA: 5'-T-T-T-T-T-T-T-A-T-T-G-C-T-T-T-3') showed no major variations, suggesting that the electronic properties of the Ru(II) complexes are largely unaffected by hybridization. The thermal stability of the PNA·DNA duplexes, as evaluated from UV melting experiments, is enhanced compared to the corresponding nonmetalated duplexes. The melting temperature (T(m)) was almost 8 °C higher for PNA2·DNA duplex, and 4 °C for PNA3·DNA duplex, with the stabilization attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic residues (Ru(II) unit and positively charged lysine/arginine) and the polyanionic DNA backbone. In presence of tripropylamine (TPA) as co-reactant, PNA2, PNA3, PNA2·DNA and PNA3·DNA displayed strong electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signals even at submicromolar concentrations. Importantly, the combination of spectrochemical, thermal and ECL properties possessed by the Ru(II)-PNA sequences offer an elegant approach for the design of highly sensitive multimodal biosensing tools.

publication date

  • March 5, 2012