OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge and reported practice regarding sexually transmitted infections (STI) among healthcare providers in rural Vietnam and to examine background characteristics possibly associated with knowledge and practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire was carried out in 2006 among 465 healthcare providers in rural Vietnam. The questionnaire included questions on providers' characteristics, STI knowledge, and case scenarios of 4 common STI syndromes. Correct answer was scored 1, "do not know" or incorrect answer was scored 0. Linear and logistic regressions were applied. RESULTS: Diseases considered as STI were gonorrhea and syphilis by 83% of the respondents, 70% believed partner treatment necessary for bacterial vaginosis or candidiasis cases. Sharing clothes/food or kissing was commonly mentioned as transmission routes (60%). Median scores of knowledge and reported practice were 29 (range: 0-50) and 2 (range: 0-20), respectively. Among the respondents, 34% had a knowledge score of less than 25 and 78% had a practice score of less than 10. Characteristics predicting higher level of knowledge were being a medical doctor, assistant medical doctor, midwife, or serving STI patients. Characteristics predicting higher level of practice were serving STI patients, being a midwife or female provider, and having participated in STI or reproductive tract infection training courses. Respondents who reported treating STI patients had a higher level of knowledge and reported practice than the others.