Sheep immunized systemically with a surface extract from third-stage H. contortus larvae showed high serum antibody reactivity against surface antigens and whole, viable larvae. After a first infection, no significant difference was found between the mean egg counts of the vaccinates and controls although most vaccinated sheep seemed to show an increased susceptibility to infection. The local abomasal response was stimulated by giving both vaccinated and control sheep a large, abbreviated infection cured after 11 days by drenching. Thereafter, a second challenge infection was given. This immunization regime resulted in seven of the nine vaccinated sheep showing clear protection against the second challenge infection.