Changes in lymphocyte traffic in efferent lymph from the prescapular lymph node of sheep were monitored during local primary and secondary infection with blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. During primary infections the response was characterised by an increase in the output of CD4+ T cells over CD8+ T cells for the first 48 h after wound initiation. By 72 h the output of CD8+ T cells exceeded that of CD4+ T cells. During secondary infections the increased output of CD8+ T cells was more pronounced and occurred earlier at approximately 48 h. The percentage of B lymphocytes as measured by sIg, CD45R and MHC class II expression increased at approximately 96-120 h after both primary and secondary infections, with the secondary response being greater than the primary. This increase in B cells corresponded with peak antibody titres recorded in the efferent lymph to a first instar antigen preparation as measured by ELISA. An increase in IFN-gamma and soluble IL-2 receptor was recorded after both primary and secondary infections, with the response after secondary infection being greater than that recorded after primary larval infections.