New developments in dry powder pulmonary vaccine delivery Academic Article uri icon


  • Pulmonary immunization has gained increased recognition as a means of triggering both a mucosal and systemic immune response without the use of needles. The appropriate formulation of antigens in a dry, solid state can result in improved stability, thereby removing cold-chain storage complications associated with conventional liquid-based vaccines. The particulate nature of dry powder vaccines could also induce a better immune response. This review describes our current understanding of pulmonary immunization, including possible barriers facing the development of pulmonary vaccines, and discusses recent advances in spray-drying technologies applicable to the production of dry powder formulations for pulmonary vaccine delivery.


  • Sou, T
  • Meeusen, EN
  • de Veer, M
  • Morton, DAV
  • Kaminskas, LM
  • McIntosh, MP

publication date

  • 2011