This study investigated the biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy of Lutetium-177 (177Lu) radiolabeled anti-Lewis Y monoclonal antibody hu3S193 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts. The ability of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 and docetaxel chemotherapy to enhance the efficacy of RIT was also assessed in vivo.The in vitro cytotoxicity of 177Lu labeled hu3S193 on Le(y) positive DU145 prostate cancer cells was assessed using proliferation assays, with induction of apoptosis measured by ELISA. The in vivo biodistribution and tumor localization of 177Lu-hu3S193 was assessed in mice bearing established DU145 tumor xenografts. The efficacy and maximum tolerated dose of 177Lu-hu3S193 RIT in vivo was determined by a dose escalation study. EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or docetaxel chemotherapy was administered at sub-therapeutic doses in conjunction with RIT in vivo.177Lu-hu3S193 mediated significant induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro. In vivo analysis of 177Lu-hu3S193 biodistribution demonstrated specific targeting of DU145 prostate cancer xenografts, with maximal tumor uptake of 33.2 +/- 3.9%ID/g observed at 120 hr post-injection. In RIT studies, 177Lu-hu3S193 caused specific and dose-dependent inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth. A maximum tolerated dose of 350 microCi was determined for 177Lu-hu3S193. Combination of 177Lu-hu3S193 RIT with EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or docetaxel chemotherapy both significantly improved efficacy.177Lu-hu3S193 RIT is effective as a single agent in the treatment of Le(y) positive prostate cancer models. The enhancement of RIT by AG1478 or docetaxel indicates the promise of combined modality strategies.