Development and Validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents.

authors

  • Schaefer, LM
  • Burke, NL
  • Thompson, JK
  • Dedrick, RF
  • Heinberg, LJ
  • Calogero, RM
  • Bardone-Cone, AM
  • Higgins, MK
  • Frederick, DA
  • Kelly, M
  • Anderson, DA
  • Schaumberg, K
  • Nerini, A
  • Stefanile, C
  • Dittmar, H
  • Clark, E
  • Adams, Z
  • Macwana, S
  • Klump, KL
  • Vercellone, AC
  • Paxton, SJ
  • Swami, V

publication date

  • 2015