Abelson virus has been used to transform cells of a murine, factor-dependent myeloid cell line (FD). Factor-independent (FI) cell lines were derived, which expressed the viral genome and were tumorigenic in syngeneic mice. Karyotypic analysis of FI cells before and after passage in vivo indicated that the tumorigenic cells were derived from FD cells. Northern gel analysis of mRNA, bioassay of culture supernatants, and the density-independent growth of the FI cells indicated that the transformation had not induced the synthesis of the hemopoietic growth factors normally required to support the FD cells, that is, granulocyte-macrophage CSF or Multi-CSF. The FD and FI cells displayed similar numbers of cell surface receptors for Multi-CSF (IL-3) and GM-CSF. We conclude that Abelson virus transformation of this line from factor-dependence to factor-independence and tumorigenicity did not involve autocrine stimulation.