The CD3 epsilon gamma heterodimer is essential for expression and function of the T cell receptor. The crystal structure of the human CD3 epsilon gamma heterodimer is described to 2.1-A resolution complexed with OKT3, a therapeutic mAb that not only activates and tolerizes mature T cells but also induces regulatory T cells. The mode of CD3 epsilon gamma dimerization provides a general structural basis for CD3 assembly and maps candidate T cell antigen receptor docking sites, including a duplicated linear region rich in acidic residues that is unique to human CD3 epsilon. OKT3 binds to an atypically small area of CD3 epsilon and has a low affinity for the isolated CD3 epsilon gamma heterodimer. The structure of the OKT3/CD3 epsilon gamma complex has implications for T cell signaling and therapeutic design.