The genetic relationships between several morphological groups recognized within Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato were investigated using RAPD analysis and vegetative compatibility analysis. Isolates were examined from fruit rots originating in New Zealand and Australia, from Lupinus spp. in New Zealand, Canada, France and the U.K., and from Pinus radiata in New Zealand and Australia. The genetic distinctness of the groups recognized morphologically is confirmed. Two genetically distinct groups of C. acutatum-like pathogens are recognized from lupin, one comprising isolates from New Zealand and the U.K., the other isolates from Canada and France. C. acutatum f. sp. pineum isolates from New Zealand and Australia form two genetically distinct groups.