Isolated rabbit glomeruli were incubated in vitro with 35SO4 in order to analyze the proteoglycans synthesized. Proteoglycans extracted with 4 M guanidine HCl from whole isolated glomeruli and from purified glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were analyzed by gel filtration chromatography. Two types of sulfated proteoglycans were found to be synthesized by rabbit glomeruli and these contained either heparan sulfate or chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. These glycosaminoglycans were characterized by their sensitivity to selective degradation by nitrous acid or chondroitinase ABC, respectively. The major proteoglycan extracted from the whole glomeruli was a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate species (75%), while purified GBM contained mostly heparan sulfate (70%). The glycosaminoglycan chains were estimated to be about 12,000 molecular weight which is consistent with previous estimates for similar molecules extracted from the rat GBM.