As the world enjoys the promise of biomedical advances against HIV, numerous challenges remain. Some of these are connected to politics, others are connected to resource constraints. Other barriers are linked to the need to ensure that the concepts used to think about HIV remain current. Terms such as "MSM" (men who have sex with men) and "community" require critical interrogation at a moment when their political origins seem forgotten. Likewise, struggles between groups most affected by HIV and scientists and policymakers (an enduring feature of the epidemic) remain a key aspect of the response. The dangers of co-option and distraction remain real. In this context, it is vital to promote community ownership, political commitment, solidarity, and respect for differences, not as competing values, but as part of the ultimate solution to HIV.