Non-compliance with antipsychotic medication is observed in around 50% of people with schizophrenia and is a major preventable cause of psychiatric morbidity. A number of factors influence patient's decisions about taking medication and include awareness of illness, beliefs about treatment and side-effects of medication. A variety of interventions targeted at improving compliance have been tested. Education increases patients' understanding of their illness and treatment but does not improve compliance. However, interventions, such as compliance therapy, based on cognitive-behavioural techniques appear to be effective in enhancing compliance and preventing relapse.